Churchgoers outside a chapel in the mountain village of Zapata, Yajalon municipality. About a year after I made this photograph, local papers reported that five children under the age of two had died from a wave of respiratory infections in Zapata. One of the main demands of the Zapatista Army in 1994 was adequate healthcare in indigenous and rural communities, but many remain isolated from medical attention. Emiliano Zapata, Yajalon, 2011.

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REBEL TERRITORY


On New Year's Day, 1994, the world awoke to news of an uprising in southern Mexico. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation, an indigenous guerrilla that had been organizing in secret for a decade, had occupied cities in the state of Chiapas and declared war on the Mexican government. Their demands were basic human rights: land, work, healthcare, education, and justice. It was the last in a long line of attempts at leftist revolution that rocked Latin America during the Cold War era.


At the time, Chiapas was one of the poorest states in Mexico, and the colonial legacy of Indian exploitation was ingrained in its economic and social system. The Zapatista Uprising set off national dialogue and progress around indigenous rights, but it also brought years of counterinsurgency warfare, polarization, and violence to the communities of Chiapas. Negotiations with the rebels eventually broke down, and the state remains militarized today. I began this series in 2011 to look at life in Chiapas on the 20th anniversary of the uprising.

Members of the Mexican Army march in the Independence Day Parade in San Cristobal de Las Casas, the biggest city taken by the Zapatistas in 1994. Tens of thousands of soldiers were sent to Chiapas after the uprising, and military bases can still be seen all over the state. September 16, 2014.

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Posters and murals cover a building in the village of Acteal. On December 22, 1997, 14 children and 27 adults were murdered here in what is known as the Acteal Massacre. The victims were among thousands of people displaced by paramilitary terror in the region, and were targeted for being members of Las Abejes, a Catholic activist organization that sympathized with Zapatista demands but opposed their use of violence. Acteal, Chenalho municipality, 2014.

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Tomas and Fernando burn trash across the street from their house on a Saturday afternoon. After the Zapatista Uprising, government officials promised to lift Chiapas out of poverty and address the rebellion's roots, but in practice the response was militarization. According to CONEVAL data, nine of the fifteen poorest districts in Mexico were in Chiapas as of 2010, including San Juan Cancuc at number three. San Juan Cancuc municipality, 2014.

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Chamula municipality, 2014.

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Zapatista teachers and international supporters sing the Zapatista hymn at The Little School, an initiative created to teach outsiders about the movement's methods of resistance. The Zapatistas attracted masses of sympathizers after the uprising, with revolutionary communiques that reached readers around the world at the dawn of the internet age. Autonomous Government Center of La Realidad, 2014.

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Zapatistas welcome sympathizers to The Little School. The Zapatista, who still number in the tens of thousands, have been nonviolent since a cease-fire was called on January 12, 1994, and live in communities that reject all government services and interference. Good Government Center of La Realidad, 2014.

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A sign marks a rural Zapatista village: "You are in Zapatista rebel territory. Here the people order and the government obeys." Zona Norte, 2012.

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Poster depicting a Zapatista and a Black Panther as two halves of the same person. San Cristobal de las Casas, 2012.

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A young woman from Zinacantan municipality at a chain store in San Cristobal de Las Casas. In pre-rebellion San Cristobal, a colonial bastion where descendants of the Spanish and mestizos were considered superior, it would have been unheard of to see an indigenous family at a place like the mall. San Cristobal de Las Casas, 2014.

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A group of people who had invaded Rancho Elar, a local farm owned by an American expatriate, finish a march in San Cristobal de Las Casas. They falsely claimed to be Zapatistas but were soon expelled from the property by police. The Zapatista practice of "recuperating" lands from large, exploitative haciendas has been misappropriated in the years since the rebellion, with some groups using it as a pretext for invading small farms. As a result many locals now view Zapatistas as thieves. San Cristobal de Las Casas, 2012.

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High schoolers look for their friends after marching in the Independence Day Parade. San Cristobal de Las Casas, 2014.

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Zapatistas light sparklers during a celebration of the 21st anniversary of the 1994 uprising. Oventic, New Year's Eve, 2015.

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